A histamine is a amine released by certain classes of cells within the framework of a immune reaction . The amines , in turn, are substances derived from ammonia, formed by the replacement of at least one hydrogen atom with aromatic or aliphatic radicals. A immune reaction , on the other hand, is a response of the organism to the action of an antigen.
Histamine, in short, is released by some cells while the body develops an immune reaction. The neurons the nervous system usually take care of its synthesis and its release; Once it is outside the nervous system, histamine acts in various physiological processes.
It can be said that histamine is a molecule produced by biological agents. The human being manufactures it in neurons, but also in mast cells , the platelets and other cells. The histamine present in a person's body can also be made by bacteria found in the food consumed or in the intestinal flora: the sources of histamine for the organism, in this way, can be internal or external.
There are several functions that histamine fulfills. On the one hand, the body releases histamine in the tissues and in the blood when it detects a "enemy" (a bacterium, a virus, an allergen, etc.). On the other hand, histamine participates in the hydrochloric acid production and acts as neurotransmitter with a key role in adapting to the environment and in the sleep and wake cycle.
If the amount of histamine in the blood is excessive , either because of an allergy, food poisoning, a disease or another reason, various disorders can be generated from the binding of histamine to its receptors: from nasal congestion and migraine until arrhythmia , tachycardia , itching , diarrhea and muscle pains . To prevent these conditions, a doctor can provide a antihistamine medication that is responsible for preventing histamine-receptor binding.